Ternary Approach to Development Funding:
Cooperation (SSC) is a broad framework of collaboration
of the Global South in the political, economic, social, cultural,
environmental and technical domains. Involving two or more developing
countries, it can take place on a bilateral, regional, intra-regional or
inter-regional basis. SSC has existed for at least sixty years but it
has gradually attained prominence in the past two decades.
A similar and even more effective approach
is the Triangular Cooperation (TrC). As the name implies, it involves
three actors, two from the developing South and one from the developed
North. The latter can also be a multilateral / bilateral organisation.
The role of the latter is to provide financial resources so that the
countries of the South can exchange support based on their specific
needs and challenges.
The rising economic strength of India has
helped it in leveraging the TrC. In the past two decades, India has
enjoyed a greater role in facilitating support by engaging in
development partnerships with other developing countries thereby
channeling bilateral, regional and multilateral flows. For instance, at
the India-Africa Forum Summits in 2008 and 2011, India committed to
establish about 100 institutions in different African countries to
strengthen capacities at the pan-African, regional and bilateral levels.
We at the Development Alternatives Group
believe that the TrC is a kind of cooperative approach that can be used
as an effective tool in contributing towards attainment of all 17 SDGs.
Moreover, it can be used to promote mutual advancement through which
states, international organisations, academic institutions, civil
society and the private sector can collaborate and share knowledge,
skills and successful initiatives in specific areas such as agricultural
development, climate change, access to quality livelihood opportunities,
resource efficiency, urbanisation, health etc. TrC is not just a one-way
assistance from donor to recipient but is a model where emphasis is
firmly placed on capacity building, development of self-reliance and
promotion of sustainable development in developing countries.
Over the past 20 years, the Development
Alternatives Group has been actively engaged in implementing technology
and knowledge transfer by utilising the TrC mechanism. Apart from that,
it has also undertaken policy research and advocacy of clean
technologies and imparted training and capacity building. During this
period, it has successfully executed programmes in various countries in
Africa, south and south-east Asia in the areas of energy-efficient and
environmental-friendly construction technologies, low emission building
materials, industrial waste utilisation and green agricultural
practices. Some key countries include Nepal, Indonesia, South Africa,
Chile, Afghanistan, Ghana and Malawi. Our activities have helped
mitigate CO2 emissions, conserve critical natural resources and created
employment opportunities in target regions.
Many developing countries that have emerged
as important actors in the global economy have provided increasing
support to other developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.
Regional and multilateral institutions assume an enhanced role in
facilitating TrC and have an important role to play in the development
of the global south. Yet, their administrative systems and institutional
structures need to evolve to reflect the modalities of this type of
cooperation. Moving forward, realising the full potential of TrC will
involve more proactive engagement and support to southern provider
countries by regional and multilateral funding institutions.
Dr Soumen Maity
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